Malaysia's 'Vision 2020' plan

 


Malaysia's Vision 2020 is known as 'Wawasan 2020'. When the then Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad formulated the Sixth Plan in February 1991, he worked with development planners to build a secure, free and independent Malaysia, and above all, a developed Malaysia by 2020 that would make Malaysia a developed country.

Vision-2020 basically 9 strategic controllers or challenges that if passed Malaysia will become a developed country. 

To achieve these, a detailed program was adopted in 2011-15 as a master plan of the Tenth Malaysia Plan. 

Many have said that the plan is quite bold and ambitious. It is also important to maintain economic growth.

Malaysia needs Gross National Income, or GNI, with a per capita income of 15,000 USD, which, according to the World Bank, would make it a high-income country. 

But it dropped from 11.19 per capita in 2019 to 10.19 in 2020. As a result, meeting the target goes a long way. Analyzing the economic indicators, it has been seen that even in 2025, Malaysia will not be able to become a high-income country.

Apart from industrialization, Vision-2020 also includes issues of social values. Such as building a fair, beautiful, tolerant and more democratic society and competitive economy.

 Malay politicians say the current economy needs to be "reformed" if the Wawasan program is to succeed in building a developed country; There is some skepticism about the free practice of democracy in Malaysia. 

Many say corruption has been resorted to for power and the government is controlling the media to prevent political corruption; Critics also believe that ethnic divisions have increased. 
During the formulation of the plan, Dr. Mahathir identified 9 needs. These are: ethnic unity, mental emancipation and security, proper democratic practice, scientific advancement, family-centered welfare organization, proper and proper growth, prosperous economy, electronic progress, digitalization of everything, etc. 


According to the survey, ethnic Malays have the highest income. Then there are the people of Indian descent and the people of Chinese descent at the b

 But according to Dr. Mahathir, if Wawasan Duakulo Duakulo succeeds, there will be no ethnographic division in the country. Then everyone will get equal opportunities as a citizen of Malaysia.

The decline of the economy, political corruption, and social unrest have hampered the achievement of the desired goals.

 During the formulation of the plan, Dr. Mahathir identified 9 needs.

 These are: ethnic unity, mental emancipation and security, proper democratic practice, scientific advancement, family-centered welfare organization, proper and proper growth, prosperous economy, electronic progress, digitalization of everything, etc. 

Reviewing these identified goals can be divided into three types of activities. Such as economic, political and social activities.

To build a prosperous Malaysia, Mahathir Mohamad called for doubling real GDP every decade from 1990 to 2020. 

Then the GDP target in 2020 will stand at 352 billion dollars. But the global economic crisis in 2008 also gripped Malaysia. 

Then Prime Minister Najib Razak announced that the country needs to raise its annual GDP growth rate to 8
percent if it is to move to Qatar, a developed country, by 2020.

 But then the GDP rate dropped to 6 percent, which is 5.6 percent on average in 2010-15. In this situation, Najib expressed his opinion that if we want to stand in the line of developed countries, we have to wait till 2030. 

One of the reasons for this is the fall in commodity prices. Malaysia's top exports in 2014 were integrated circuits worth 40.7 billion, refined petroleum worth 25 billion, petroleum gas worth 22 billion and palm oil worth 13 billion. 

Petroleum and palm oil accounted for 30 per cent of the total export revenue. 

According to the Financial Times, the future of Malaysia's economic prosperity depends on government spending controls, oil pricing and export strategies. Reducing government spending saved about 3 billion the following year.

There is also a lot of talk and criticism about Malaysia's economic policy reform. The current economic policy is in favor of Malays or Bhumiputras, who make up two-thirds of Malaysia's population. 

The new economic policy was formulated in 1971 to further improve the livelihood of the Bhumiputras. At that time, Chinese Malaysians enjoyed a better standard of living. 

Due to the new policy, the income of the Malays increased a lot, and economic and political activities revolved around them.

 Then there were rumors that the government was biased which was not the wish of any welfare state. In this way, there is a lot of criticism on the new policy from various aspects.

Economist and politician Yeh Kim Leng exclaimed that Malaysia has come close to the desired goal. He added that not all other regulators of development had the proper coordination that was needed to build a developed country. 

Leng argues that per capita income in 2019 stood at 11,000. It was just 1,500 less to be a ‘high-income country’. 

However, with the status of high income, ‘modern advanced technology’ and ‘advanced way of life’ are needed. 

These have not yet been achieved by Malaysia. Leng also thinks that Malaysian society is ‘cracked’, a transition has to be made from here.

 Many important issues have been coordinated in Mahathir's Brainchild "Wawasan". Dr. Michael Joykumar Devraj says GDP has increased in Malaysia.

In 1990 it was 100 billion ringgit, in 2020 it has risen to 1.3 trillion ringgit which is commendable. But economic equality is an important issue in Malaysia. 

"We have a lot of poor people and people's debt is rising," he said, recalling that a graduate earns between 1,600 and 2,000 ringgit a month; Many are forced to work for lower wages. 

He added, many malaysian has become a homeowner but land and house prices have risen in the real estate sector, which is not right. 

This will cause a lot of problems to the low-income Malaysians. Devraj said that while buildings like Malaysia's impressive highways and Petronas look beautiful from the outside, social life is not so happy. 

There are racial divisions. Devraj thinks that the politicians are responsible for this. According to Vision 2020, the education policy has failed to produce the kind of graduates that are supposed to be created to reach the goal. 

"Najib Razak's abuse of power and corruption have hurt Vision 2020," he told the media. If Najib had touched on the key issues of development and looked after the welfare of the people, Pakatan Harapan would not have won the 14th general election." 


That is why many political scientists are talking about 'overhauling' education policy.

Former Prime Minister Dr Mahathir Mohamad has said that Vision 2020 has not been achieved due to changes in its plans and policies.

 He said this in an interview when the 'Pakatan Harapan' administration collapsed. ‘When I resigned, the focus on development was different, the policies were different.

 Due to these changes, it was not possible to reach the target. The policies changed after my resignation were completely different, "he said.

"Najib Razak's abuse of power and corruption have hurt Vision 2020," he told the media. If Najib had touched on the key issues of development and looked after the welfare of the people, Pakatan Harapan would not have won the 14th general election."

Although three decades have passed since the announcement of the target, Wawasan has remained in the pipeline. 

In view of the social and political situation, it is now necessary to determine policy reviews and strategies for the industrial development of the country.

 Standing on the highway of development, Malaysia has fallen into the abyss of rampant corruption. No country can ever become a developing country if there is rampant corruption. 

Moreover, the political situation has affected the instability in the capital market. The COVID-19 attack caused 26 billion in damage to Malaysia's tourism sector last year. 

Two five-star hotels closed a few months ago. Another one is coming up next March. Although efforts are being made to revive the tourism sector, it is declining day by day.

 In this situation, the government will be in a dilemma to bring the economy back to its previous state. In addition, in 2018, the European Union suspended the purchase of palm oil from Malaysia, citing biofuel environmental policy. 

At the same time, India has banned palm imports for commenting on Kashmir.

Sociologists and political scientists in Malaysia believe that in order to become a high-income country, the country's plans need to be streamlined and lessons learned from mistakes. 

Equality in purchasing power, the PPP, has increased by 20 percent, said Leng of Sunway University. 

However, two other Asian countries, Singapore and South Korea, have overtaken Malaysia. He said South Korea's per capita income rose from 16.2 percent in 1980 to 80.2 percent in 2020.

Singapore has done better; it stood at 151.6 percent. Economists say the reason why Malaysia has not done well is financial and political corruption. 

International Center for Education in Islamic Finance Professor Mohammad Arif said-

"Vision 2020 is a marathon plan. Politicians have made it a sprint by dragging, trying to get to the end by trying to grow the economy too fast. "

"If the economy is ‘over driven’ like an engine, it becomes ‘over heated’. According to him, due to 'imported labor and capital', Malaysia has achieved good growth in the 1990s. He did not comment on digitalisation or industrial development."

Mrs. Tunku Munabbara Putra, Secretary of the Malaysia Parent Action Group for Education. She said ‘trust school programs’ and ‘bilingual teaching’ have been beneficial, but digital facilities are less. 

Teachers have failed to improve students' qualifications and the government has not been able to control politics.

 All of this has prevented Wawasan from reaching the desired goal. ‘We are still trapped in the middle income. Our graduates can't find jobs. 

According to the World Bank, the quality of education in Malaysia has declined. As a result, it has hampered the income of the mass people. 

There is a mismatch between what the job market wants and what we are teaching. '' Mrs. Munabbara said, '' We need a change in education policy. The course curriculum needs to be taken in an international sense". 

According to the World Bank, the quality of education in Malaysia has declined. As a result, it has hampered the income of the mass people. 

The World Bank thinks qualified graduates are needed for high-income economies; So the transformation of the education system is needed. 

Arif thinks that the morality of politics is not in Malaysia, it is better not to talk about reform, but the political mantra will be 'transformation'; Not ‘correction’.

Although Malaysia is far from Vision 2020, another new plan has been floated in 2019. 

Its name is Shared Prosperity Vision 2030. According to the plan, Malaysia will become the economic hub of Asia by 2030.

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