The forgotten genocide of Jammu

 73 years ago, mainly in November 1947, a few months after the partition of India, planned communal riots broke out almost everywhere in occupied Jammu. Thousands of Muslims in Jammu have been killed in the riots. Then Jammu was a part of the Princely State of Jammu and Kashmir.

 The following year, in 1948, a similarly planned communal riot broke out in Hyderabad and killed Muslims indiscriminately. 

In history, these two massive Muslim massacres are known as 'Jammu Muslim Massacre / Genocide' and 'Hyderabad Muslim Massacre / Genocide' respectively. 

These two genocides are probably the least talked about and almost forgotten tragedies of today. At that time minor Muslim killings also took place in different parts of India.

Behind this was the support of the Indian government at that time for their 'national interest' attitude. There is clear historical evidence that the Indian ruling class conspired in the "national interest" to carry out such killings of Muslims. If you search the internet, you can easily know the tragic story of these Muslim killings.

According to Wikipedia, many Muslims were killed in the 1946 Jammu genocide. Many were deported to West Punjab. This genocide was carried out by extremist Hindus and Sikhs. They were assisted by a paramilitary force led by the army of Maharaja Hari Singh, the Dogra Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir. 

The extremist Hindutva organization RSS (Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh) played a key role in planning and executing the riots. According to one estimate, between 20,000 and 100,000 Muslims were killed during this time. Survivors of the riots said that many of their relatives lost their lives during the riots. 

There was not a speck of humanity left. The unruly mob and the Dogra king's army cooperated with the extremist Hindus and Sikhs. RSS activists planned the riots intending to kill Muslims.

The Dogra king's army started the massacre in Jammu with extremist Hindus and Sikhs. It is difficult to determine the exact number of casualties in the two-month-old massacre. According to various sources, the death toll has risen from a minimum of 20,000 to a maximum of 236,000. 

About five lakh Muslims were forced to flee to newly created Pakistan and Azad Kashmir. Later they settled there permanently. In this case, many family members became separated from each other and became residents of the two countries. That massacre gave birth to many incidents.

 As a result, war broke out between India and Pakistan. The two countries also have disputes over Kashmir. In this conflict, people from the Muslim, Hindu and Sikh communities of both the countries crossed the border and moved from one country to another. 

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"It had an immediate adverse effect on Jammu. In October-November, the Dogra army carried out a program of forcible expulsion of Muslim subjects from different parts of Jammu province".

 Idris Kanth, a fellow at the International Institute of Social History in Amsterdam, said that the killing of Muslims had been going on for about three weeks at that time. He is a researcher on the history of Kashmir in the 1980s. 
Maharaja Hari Singh

It is learned that in mid-October, the Dogra army started expelling Muslims from the villages of Jammu province. These refugees were deported to the West Punjab part of Pakistan.

 Most of them took refuge in refugee camps in Sialkot, Jhelum and Rawalpindi. Idris Kanth added, "On November 5, the Dogra forces launched a well-planned and well-organized operation to displace the Muslims. 

It was said that they would be taken to Sialkot. But instead of taking Sialkot, they were taken to the hilly forest area of ​​Rajouri district of Jammu. 

After being taken there, all of them were killed indiscriminately and the forces of the Dogra king destroyed the evidence of the massacre. As a result, the incident during the partition of India remained a lesser-known event.

Historians say that the massacre was carried out by the army of the Maharaja of Hindu Jammu and Kashmir and the Sikh army. It was state-sponsored genocide. Its main objective was to change the demographics of Jammu. Jammu has always been a significant Muslim-majority region.

 At that time 80 per cent of the people of Jammu were Muslims. Jammu was made a Muslim minority area employing genocide and expulsion.

PG Rasool, the author of The Historical Reality of Kashmir Dispute, said, "Two lakh Muslims were killed in the state-sponsored  massacre. The army was called in from Patiala in Punjab. In the whole situation, the far-right Hindu organization RSS was called to create a communal atmosphere and kill Muslims. '

Kanth added, "A meeting was held in Jammu between Indian Prime Minister Pandit Nehru and a Kashmiri delegation led by Kashmiri leader Sheikh Abdullah. This tragedy is discussed there. But they prefer silence. They did not want to inform the people of Kashmir. Because, if the people in Muslim-majority Kashmir knew about it from the beginning, it could lead to large-scale protests and instability. So the Indian state always tries to keep the matter a secret." 

"I wouldn't call it a 'massacre', but a 'staged genocide'. Unfortunately, there was no discussion about this. The Indian government thought that even if part of Kashmir went with Pakistan, at least Jammu should be kept with India. And the only way to keep it is to turn Jammu into a Hindu-majority region. That is the purpose of this Muslim genocide. "

Wikipedia goes on to describe the context of the genocide: When India was partitioned in 1947, the British government relinquished control of the Princely States. At the same time, it is up to them to decide whether they will remain independent or join Pakistan or India. 

The then Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir, Hari Singh, at first hinted at independence, but at one stage became active in favour of India's annexation. Then the ‘Muslim Conference’ of Kashmir announced the annexation of Jammu and Kashmir with Pakistan. Since then, there has been a dispute between India and Pakistan over Jammu and Kashmir, which is still ongoing.

Wikipedia describes the Jammu genocide as follows: On October 14, the RSS and Akali factions attacked villages in different districts of Jammu and killed Muslims. They looted their property and set fire to their houses. Massive Muslim killings also took place in and around the city of Jammu. 

The state army led the attack. State officials provided arms and ammunition to the rioters. The administration evacuated many Muslim soldiers from the state army. Many Muslim police officers were fired. Muslims were killed in communal riots in most of the non-Muslim areas.

The rioters drove around the city in vehicles with weapons and ammunition. At the same time, the government enforced a curfew in the city. The men and women of the Gujjar community used to supply milk to the city of Jammu. 

They were killed indiscriminately. It is said that the bodies of Gujjar women, men and children were dumped in the rubbish heap of Ramnagar. Many Muslim areas in Jammu were cordoned off and water and food supplies were cut off. The Muslims of the Talab Khatikan area resisted with what they had. 

The administration later announced that if they surrendered, they would be allowed to leave for Pakistan safely. In the first week of November, thousands of Muslims, including Gujjars, were told to be taken to Sialkot by the army in large trucks. When they reached outside the city, they were pulled out of a truck and killed by armed Sikhs and RSS activists. 

Many women were abducted at that time. Reports of large-scale killings also came from Udhampur district, Ramnagar, Chennai, Bhadrewah and other areas. Massive Muslim massacres took place in different areas of Chamb, Dev Batala, Manjeshwar and Akhnoor. However, many people were able to flee to Pakistan. On 16 November 1948, Sheikh Abdullah went to Jammu and a refugee camp was set up at Mahalla Ustad.

According to Khurram Parvez, a well-known human rights activist in Kashmir, "the endless conflict in today's Kashmir has its roots in the 1948 genocide in Jammu. That incident has been intentionally forgotten. The massacre of 1948 is endless. 

It continues today. The killing of Muslims in Jammu and Kashmir is going on intermittently. Those who fled to Pakistan to escape the carnage that day were never allowed to return to Jammu and Kashmir.

Five days after the Jammu massacre, tribal militias from Pakistan's West Frontier Province entered Kashmir. The Dogra king's army then retreated from Kashmir and fled to the Jammu region, and Raja Hari Singh then signed a treaty of annexation of Jammu and Kashmir with New Delhi. India then sent an army to fight the tribal militia. 

The weeks-long war between the Pakistani tribal militia and the Indian army culminated in the first Indo-Pakistani war. In 1947, the two countries agreed to a ceasefire. The former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir was divided into two parts, one part of India and the other part of Pakistan. 

The dividing line ‘Line of Control’ is implemented. The conflict, which began in 1948, has led to three wars between the two countries. In 1969, an armed insurgency or armed struggle for an independent Kashmir began in Kashmir.

To the Kashmiris, it is a 'war of independence', to the Indians it is a 'separatist movement'. As a result, at least 60,000 people have been killed in Indian-occupied Kashmir over the next three decades. 

Thousands of young men were abducted by the Indian Army, whose bodies are being buried in many unknown mass graves. Earlier in 1948, many Muslims in Jammu and Kashmir were massacred by militias led by the Dogra Maharaja's army and Sikh and Hindu extremists. Millions of Muslims were displaced.

According to historical records, in a telegram sent to Pakistani leaders in 1947, Jawaharlal Nehru repeatedly promised that Indian troops had been sent to restore order in Jammu and Kashmir at the request of the Dogra king. Once the situation calms down, a referendum will be held in Jammu and Kashmir. 

Then the people there will decide their fate through that referendum, whether Jammu and Kashmir will be an independent state, or stay with India or Pakistan.

But to date, India has not kept its promise to hold a referendum in Kashmir on various pretexts. On the contrary, it has continued to swallow Kashmir. As a last resort, Article 370 of the Constitution, which deals with the special status of Kashmir, has been repealed and its 'state' status has been taken away. 

It has been turned into a 'union territory'. Now India is saying that Jammu and Kashmir is an integral part of India. It is natural to say so - because every Indian ruler is a disciple of Maharaja Hari Singh.

It is a well-known fact in the historical documents that Maharaja Hari Singh had personal involvement in the genocide in Jammu. It was under his plan that the RSS and Hindu and Sikh rioters carried out the massacre in Udhampur, Chennai, Ramnagar, Riyasi, Bhadrewah, Chamb, Dev Batala, Manjeshwar, Akhnoor, Kathua, Talab Khatikan, Yogi Gate and other areas of Jammu. 

The Dogra army, police, civil servants and the entire administration cooperated in this. So they are to the conscientious people who are considered as the hated character of history. History will never forgive them and their successors.

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