Lung Cancer: Keep the lungs safe

 Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in the world today. Lung cancer is the leading cause of death from cancer in men worldwide, and the second leading cause of death in women. 

Although cancer originates in the lungs, it can later spread to the lymph nodes and other organs (such as the brain).


Two types of lung cancer are commonly found. Small cell cancer is more common in regular smokers. It is more deadly than other lung cancers and spreads to other parts of the body relatively quickly. 

Another type of cancer is non-small cell cancer. Non-small cell cancer is used as a combination of several types of cancer. These cancers are squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma. Other types of lung cancer include adenoid cystic carcinoma, lymphoma, and sarcoma, which are rare.


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Causes that increase the risk of lung cancer

Eighty per cent of all lung cancers worldwide are caused by smoking or tobacco use. People who are exposed to secondhand smoke are also at risk of developing cancer.

People who come in contact with carcinogenic (carcinogenic) substances for occupational or other reasons can develop lung cancer.

Other inflammatory diseases of the airways, such as tuberculosis, COPD, and watery lungs, can also be the cause of lung cancer.

Also, diet, family history, radioactive radiation (X-rays, radiotherapy or exposure to radioactive material), polluted air from factories, mines or cars, etc. are responsible for the causes and causes of lung cancer. 

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Symptoms of lung cancer

  • Prolonged pressed or whooping cough; Which is constantly deteriorating over time
  • Repeated bacterial infections in the chest or trachea
  • Bleeding with cough or phlegm
  • Pain in different parts of the body, such as the neck, back, chest
  • Chest pain or soreness during breathing or coughing
  • Long-term shortness of breath
  • Long-term fatigue or exhaustion; Weakness
  • Loss of appetite, sudden weight loss

Lung cancer detection

Early chest X-rays are used to detect cancer, and it is often possible to detect the presence of cancer through a sputum analysis under a microscope. However, the most effective method is a biopsy, where abnormal cells or tissues are examined by observation or collection of samples. Among the conventional biopsies, bronchoscopy, mediastinoscopy, needle biopsy etc. are notable.


Treatment

Before starting cancer treatment, the stage of the cancer is diagnosed. There are four stages of non-small cell cancer and two stages of small cell cancer. Treatment is planned considering the type, location and size of cancer, the stage and the physical condition of the patient.

Radiation usually uses high-powered X-rays and other radioactive radiation.

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Among the treatment methods for lung cancer, surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy are the most important. Also, the use of targeted therapy and immunotherapy is increasing day by day around the world.

The final decision on surgery is made based on the size and location of the tumour. If the diagnosis is made at an early stage, only the tumour and the adjacent part are removed by surgery. In many cases, removal of the entire lung or part of it is required. Among the surgical procedures, lobectomy, pneumonectomy, lymphadenectomy, etc. are notable.

Radiation usually uses high-powered X-rays and other radioactive radiation.

Cancer cells are destroyed by the application of drugs in the chemotherapy system. However, the side effects of chemotherapy include weakness, nausea, hair loss, diarrhoea, and sores on the face.

Black smoke from factories and cars is also responsible for lung cancer

Targeted therapy is applied with specific mutations in the cancer cell in mind so that the treatment does not damage the healthy cells. Currently, FDA-approved targeted therapies are used to prevent tumours caused by mutations in EGFR, ALK, ROS-1, NTRK, MET, RET and BRAF V600E.

Also, the body's immune system is strengthened through immunotherapy, which helps to build resistance against cancer.

What to do to reduce the risk of lung cancer?


Abstain completely from smoking. Even staying close to smokers should be avoided. Indirect smokers themselves are at risk of developing lung cancer.

You have to develop proper eating habits. Fresh fruits and vegetables should be included in the menu regularly. Foods high in carotenoids and sulforaphane such as carrots, oranges, capsicum, cabbage, broccoli help build resistance against cancer.

Black smoke from factories and cars is also responsible for lung cancer. Everyone needs to be aware to keep the environment free from pollution.

When working with carcinogenic substances (chromium, cadmium, asbestos, arsenic, etc.) in the workplace, you and your employees must work with proper precautions.

Exercise regularly. A 2011 study at the City of Hope National Medical Center in California found that regular exercise reduced the risk of cancer by 20-50 per cent for men and 20-30 per cent for women.

The body should be checked regularly. A CT-scan with a low dose while still healthy gives an idea of the presence of cancer.

The safety of your lungs is largely in your hands. The risk of contracting this dreaded disease can be largely avoided if certain rules are followed carefully. 

However, if you are suffering from cancer, do not panic and take treatment according to the doctor's advice.

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