Why does the production of corona vaccine take so long? When will we get it?

Presently, the world is frantic to find vaccines or drugs to interrupt the spread of the novel coronavirus. Scientists are trying to their level best to discover effective medications. More than 200 clinical examinations of COVID-19 therapies or vaccines that are either ongoing or recruiting patients. Every day either a treatment method or an ongoing clinical trial of a drug is being added on the portfolio. Researchers are testing every possible drug even declined ebola drugs, more than 80 years old malaria treatments or repurposed flu drugs are on the list.

What is a vaccine?

The immune system is the safeguard of our body. It prevents our body to be infected by pathogens or microorganisms like viruses and bacterias. Sometimes, our body gets exposure to some strong pathogens like deadly coronavirus. The vaccine is a substance that enables our defence system to its fullest again certain disease. Vaccines are made of a dead or undermined version of a germ. It boosts our immune system for future infection to identify and demolish the contagious microorganism.

It takes a certain period to develop a new vaccine. Before using human being for a long time, they have to pass several phases and be ascertained safe via clinical examination.  Director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases in the US, Dr Anthony Fauci, has repeatedly acknowledged that it needs minimum a year to 18 months to develop a vaccine. Specialists completely agree with him.

Why does vaccine production take so long?

I have already mentioned above, a vaccine has to jump through different stages and a lot of regulatory barriers to induce. First of all, it should be safe, secondly, it won't be harmful and lastly, researchers consider its effectiveness. Designing the vaccine is just the initial period and scientists have to test it again and again. Thousands of people engage with these procedures from beginning to the end. We can interpret the full strategy in six steps:

Vaccine design: 

Researchers investigate a microbe and make a blueprint so that the microbe can help the immune system to recognize the infectious pathogen for the future invasion.

Animal studies: 
The new vaccine is administered in animal samples to confirm that it will be effective and devoid of major adverse events.

Clinical trials (phase I):

 In this phase, researchers test it in human beings and consider the safety profile, effective dose and adverse effects of a vaccine. A small number of patients are enrolled to participate in this phase.

Clinical trials (phase II): 

Phase II is an inquiry to gather deeper knowledge of the drug's biological mechanism and action. A larger cohort of patients takes part in this phase to analyze the physiological outcomes and interactions with the treatment.

Clinical trials (phase III):

This is the final stage of clinical trial and a huge number of patients are observed for a long period after administration.

Regulatory approval: 

Without regulatory approval, pharma company couldn't go for manufacture. Regulatory agencies, like the US Food and Drug Administration, the European Medicines Agency and Australia's Therapeutic Goods Administration, judge the accessible information from investigations and cases and assume whether the vaccine can be declared as a safe medication.

Usually, a vaccine could take several years or more to complete all steps, mentioned above. After declaring the safety profile of the vaccine by regulatory authorities, respective drug companies send the formula to their production. And they produce the vaccine in a larger volume for the mass population.

With COVID19, the procedure is being hastened in some instances. According to the report of STATnews, Moderna has shifted from design directly into Phase I clinical trials of its mRNA vaccine, omitting experiments in animal specimens. Those tests took place at Seattle's Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Institute. They took only 63 days to complete the procedure.

When will we get the vaccine?

Fauci states that a vaccine is approximately a year and a half away, even though they are likely to recognize human trials begin within the next month or two.

"The good news is we did it more quickly than we've ever done it," Fauci told to an American tv program.

Here another good news. A coronavirus vaccine is likely to be ready by September. That's what a professor of vaccine at Oxford University claims.

The Oxford professor's name is Sarah Gilbert. On Saturday, she told The Times magazine in the UK about the vaccine of corona infection.

Already, around 0.18 million people have been killed by corona in the world so far. And the number of people suffering from corona infection in the world is about 1.72 million.
Vigorous efforts are being made in various countries to develop the vaccine for coronavirus-caused Covid-19 disease. Oxford's Sarah is also involved in this global effort.

Sarah says she is 80 percent confident that the vaccine designed by her research team will work in treating Covid-19 disease.

Sarah states they will be testing the vaccine on the human being in the next two weeks.
Sarah's team is working to produce the vaccine faster. In this regard, Sarah says she is working seven days a week.
Sarah warns as well as expected, "No one can ensure at the moment that the vaccine will work"

Other researchers have previously reported that the vaccine for Covid-19 disease can take 12 to 18 months. Now Oxford researchers say it will take six months.

Sarah says the vaccine will be ready by September if everything goes well. She is hopeful that the vaccine will help treat Covid-19. At present, she is in talks with the British government on funding and production of the vaccine.

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